Rocks from the Precambrian era in the southern part of Norway, originating at least from before 1 800 000 years, they are a later addition to the Baltic Shield (which is the backbone of the European continent). The islands of Lofoten and Vesterllen in the Far North are largely made of granite and gneiss. Interestingly, it is believed, that these regions once adjoined the North American shield, because their construction is similar to that of the eastern part of Greenland. These old rocks remained after the separation of the European and North American shields due to tectonic movements along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The Caledonian range in Scotland used to be so high, like today's Himalayas, but over time the ice and water eroded, and hence, decrease in height.
There are two tectonic ditches at the bottom of the North Sea, containing late Jurassic period slate. They are rich in oil and gas. Thanks to their extraction, Norway is now the second largest exporter of petroleum products.
During recent glaciation periods 1 800 000 for years the uplifted plateaus have settled down by at least 700 m – under the influence of an ice sheet with a thickness in some places reaching 2000 m. Moving ice, which, according to the force of gravity, flows down the beds of ancient rivers, he carved fjords and valleys and the surrounding mountain ridges and peaks, and also revealed high, naked cliffs. Just look at the map of southern Norway, in order to find out about the glacial past of this land through the radiating narrow ribbon lakes and fjords. The main part of the mass of this ice melted approx. 8800 years ago, which ended the Ice Age. Currently, there is a post-glacial period in Norway, and only a few ice caps and valley glaciers remain in the mainland.
Svalbard, geologically independent from the rest of Europe, lies on the Barents shield, far beyond the Arctic Circle. The glaciation continues for Svalbard.